The gluteals are a group of muscles that make up the posterior pelvis or the butt area. The major gluteal muscles are the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus. The fourth and smallest of the muscles is the tensor fasciae latae muscle.
The gluteus maximus is the largest and closest to the skin. Originating at the top of pelvis and attaching across upper part of the femur, it is the thick, wide muscle that gives the bum its shape. The masses of gluteal muscles or ‘glutes’ (the gluteus maximus muscle and the gluteus medius muscle) superimposed with a layer of fat is what makes the perky bum.
The superior aspect of the buttock ends at the iliac crest, and the lower aspect is outlined by the horizontal gluteal crease.
The gluteus maximus has several important functions in the thigh and pelvic areas. Buttocks allow all primates to sit upright without resting weight on feet like four-legged animals.
The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteal muscles and one of the strongest muscles in the human body. The human body has two of each of these muscles, with one set on the left side and the other on the right. Working together, the gluteal muscles control many movements of the upper leg, including rotation of the thigh, and abduction and rotation of the hip. Physiologically, the buttocks enable weight to be taken off the feet while sitting.
It inserts at the iliotibial band and the gluteal tuberosity of the femur. Its action is to extend and to laterally rotate the hip, and also to extend the trunk.
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